Centralny Port Komunikacyjny has launched a tender for the design, delivery and implementation of the Baggage Handling System (BHS) for CPK airport. The contractors may apply to participate in the competitive dialogue procedure by February 12, 2024. The baggage handling system plays a crucial role in ensuring efficient and accurate movement of luggage within airports and ensures accurate and timely delivery to passengers connecting from Warsaw to their next flight.
The goal of the competitive dialogue procedure is the analysis of the BHS’ conceptual design with regard to the System design’s implementation methods and the introduction – together with the potential operators – of a more precise tender call description, as well as verification of the main terms of the contract.
Baggage Handling System is the heart of every airport. We have launched the competitive dialogue procedure, which in its first stage will identify the most suitable industry players. In the second stage, once the cooperation conditions have been defined, we will invite four potential contractors to submit final bids. Our goal is to have a reliable system that will ensure quick luggage transfer for the passengers transferring at CPK, while no bags being lost
The scope of the call includes, among others, the BHS executive project development, supply and installation of equipment, followed by the commissioning of the system, testing and its operation and maintenance. In addition, the company provides for the possibility of extension of the operation and maintenance period under the right of option, and, if needed, the call scope extension by adding the checked baggage screening devices delivery.
In order to reduce the number of baggage losses to a minimum, the CPK representatives have carefully reviewed the solutions used at Incheon Airport in Seoul, South Korea, CPK’s strategic advisor, where rates for lost baggage amount to only one in a million.
BHS is one of many infrastructural constraints of the Chopin Airport, which is reaching its capacity limit. At peak traffic periods, such as the summer peak, Chopin airport needs even up to 84 technical personnel (excluding the handling). The terminal’s hourly capacity, taking into account traffic restrictions of the baggage sorting facility, is 1,800 bags at departures and 2,200 at arrivals, which is equivalent to six or seven B787 Dreamliner aircrafts.
CPK plans to invite four potential contractors to the competitive dialogue. In case of a higher number of proposals that meet the procedure’s conditions, CPK will assess the applications on the basis of the selection criteria referred in the documentation. Next, the applicants with the highest number of points will be invited to participate in the dialogue.
CPK invites companies that in the last 25 years have launched BHS in airports with yearly capacity of over 30 million passengers and have been responsible for the construction of early baggage system (EBS) building.
The competitive dialogue participation application deadline is February 12, 11:00 CET. More information is available on CPK’s SmartPZP platform.
So far, work on the design and construction of CPK airport is on schedule. In July, CPK presented the concept design of the passenger terminal, as well as railway and bus stations. The documentation was prepared by the Master Architect – British consortium Foster+Partners and Buro Happold that has previously designed passenger terminal in Hong Kong, Beijing, Doha, and others. The construction plan is underway and is expected to be completed in second quarter of this year.
Works on the design of the airport’s apron, including runways, taxiways as well as aircrafts aprons are at an advanced stage, and are being managed by the Master Civil Engineer (MCE) – Lebanese-American company Dar, while the Spanish company IDOM is designing the airport systems integration, which is, figuratively speaking, the airport’s “nervous system”.
The carrying out of the project documentation for the supporting infrastructure including the airport traffic control tower – is being performed within the framework agreement by the Polish design studio JSK Architekci. At the same time another Polish consortium, AKE Studio, APA and Tequm is working on the airport’s rescue and firefighting services’ building design.
In October last year CPK has selected the French group Vinci Airports and the Australian IFM Global Infrastructure Fund (IFM) as strategic investor who will acquire up to 49% of company shares for the construction and management of the airport. The entry of experienced industry and financial investors proves that the airport project has a well prepared business plan, commercial potential and guarantees a high return on investment.
CPK is in active dialogue with the market, preparing for procurement proceedings. The preliminary market consultations in various areas are underway. For example in December last year CPK has begun the market consultation prior to the tender for the Master Contract Engineer which will be the biggest investor supervision contract in Poland.
According to latest forecasts of IATA, the CPK infrastructure is crucial for LOT Polish Airlines to provide the currently lacking capacity and manage the growing potential of the transfer traffic. The strategic scenario of IATA from June last year assumes that CPK will handle about 40 million passengers in 2040, so twice as many as the Chopin Airport today.
In 2021, IATA prepared the study Air traffic forecasts for Poland and CPK. The document set out three traffic development scenarios and at the same time confirmed the need to build a new airport to handle the growing number of passengers and cargo. In the first half of 2023, CPK decided to update the IATA forecast for the CPK airport, as part of the development of the Strategic Scenario for investors.
‘Monitoring and updating forecasts is part of good investor practice,’ says Mikołaj Wild, CEO of CPK.
As the CEO explains, CPK has been updating traffic forecasts since 2021, keeping a close eye on changes in the market environment.
‘Such action is necessary due to changes in the situation in the aviation market as a result of events such as the COVID-19 pandemic, the war in Ukraine or restrictions resulting from EU environmental regulations. In addition, the progress of project work, the assumptions we make regarding, among other things, airport charges, the level of service and the infrastructure offered, affect the interest of carriers, which is then translated into forecast results. Thanks to the updates, we have a guarantee that the infrastructure we develop is adapted to the actual demand and expectations of passengers,’ adds Mikołaj Wild.
What do we know from the latest forecasts?
There has been a rapid recovery in traffic after the COVID-19 pandemic. In the case of Warsaw Chopin Airport, it has slowed down to some extent by the effects of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which began after the publication of the IATA 2021 forecast. Due to the war, flights to Ukraine and Russia have been discontinued, while flight routes to Asia, which have to avoid the closed airspace, have been extended. The conflict has led to a spike in fuel prices and currency fluctuations and, above all, an increase in inflation in many countries around the world.
Together, Ukraine, Russia and Belarus accounted for approximately 7.5% of the passengers at Chopin Airport and more than 10% of the transfer traffic in Warsaw. IATA estimated that the conflict would have long-lasting consequences, with a potential recovery of the traffic with Ukraine starting in 2025 – at around 25% of the pre-conflict levels. According to IATA, the slow start of recovery of traffic to Russia and Belarus will not be possible until 2029 at the earliest. These factors mainly have a negative impact on transfer traffic rather than local traffic (known as Origin&Destination), as it was partly offset by population that moved to Poland from Ukraine.
One of the main factors influencing the results of the new IATA forecast is the inclusion of environmental regulations that will take effect in the coming years, such as: ReFuelEU, ETD, EU ETS, and CORSIA –among others related to the EU package Fit For 55. Analyses have indicated that in the 2030s, environmental regulation could reduce demand by up to 8% relative to a non-regulated scenario, which is most relevant to short-haul European travel. However, analyses show that this factor will clearly lose importance in the long term due to technological advances and the falling price of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF).
In addition, IATA has performed detailed analyses of the transfer market and CPK’s competitive position against other hubs. In its analysis, IATA has taken into account the development of the market to date, including the changes after the COVID-19 pandemic and those related to the war in Ukraine, and forecasted changes in the future. The results of the transfer traffic analyses indicate a very high potential of CPK Airport for the development of transfer traffic in the axis: North America – Europe – Asia. In addition, the CPK Airport has favourable conditions for the development of transfer traffic within Europe.
IATA also analysed and taken into account other issues, including in particular CPK’s airport charges related to the business – investment model, as well as the competitiveness of aviation vs. High Speed Rail.
What are the results of the forecast?
The results of the 2023 IATA Strategic Scenario for CPK fall in the middle part of the 2021 forecast corridor – in the range between the high and low forecasts for the 2021 IATA assumptions. CPK is therefore prepared for such traffic development, as flexibility and modularity for different traffic scenarios was ensured from the planning phase onwards.
According to the latest forecast, CPK airport could reach 28 million passengers in 2030, 40 million passengers in 2040 and then in 2060 it should exceed 60 million passengers. By comparison: In 2021, the baseline forecast indicated 30 million passengers in 2030, 45 million in 2040 and 65 million in 2060.
Phasing is key to the success of CPK
Based on the results of the forecast and discussions with the strategic investor, an additional phase with a capacity of approx. 34 million passengers per year was introduced – with the possibility of quick expansion. The airport infrastructure will be adapted to handle hub traffic (assumed transfer traffic of around 40%). Capacity parameters for opening day were confirmed by the selected CPK strategic investor, the consortium of Vinci and IFM.
The new solution allows for a significant increase in capacity relative to Chopin Airport while reducing the scope and cost of construction for the opening day. At the same time, the analyses carried out as part of the business plan confirm the high profitability of the investment for the new forecast and phasing plan.
Due to the forecast corridor, i.e. the range between IATA’s 2021 low and high forecasts, and the experience related to COVID-19, the factor of infrastructure modularity and flexibility was introduced into the design process from the outset. The additional phasing to a capacity of 34 million passengers per year (with the possibility of rapid implementation of further expansion phases) is partly related to the phasing of the terminal and aircraft stands.
The first phase’s capacity of 34 million passengers per year fits in with examples of other greenfield airports, i.e. airports built ‘from scratch’ – without existing infrastructure. The initial capacity of Incheon Airport in Seoul was 30 million passengers. Today – after the launch of the next phases – it now sees 77 million passengers.
The new IATA 2023 Forecast for CPK confirms that the construction of two independent runways is necessary from the opening day as a solution to the capacity problems occurring at Chopin Airport.
Air cargo forecast. Strong potential for market development
In Strategic Scenario 2023, air cargo and air mail projections are at a similar level to the IATA 2021 forecast. Due to the current limitations of Chopin Airport, the projections are primarily based on IATA’s analysis of the potential of the Central and Eastern European cargo market and the determination of CPK Airport’s achievable market share. These figures confirm that the construction of CPK is invariably necessary for Poland in view of the projected passenger and cargo traffic.
The IATA forecast is one of the many sources of information used in the dimensioning of airfreight handling infrastructure. The cargo infrastructure of the CPK airport was determined on the basis of business arrangements with market stakeholders (including ground handling agents, airlines, freight forwarders and courier companies). These findings were based on independent analyses and investor assumptions.
As with the passenger section, the construction of the CPK’s cargo infrastructure will be phased. The specific phases of expansion will be the responsibility of the individual stakeholders, involved in organising and handling airfreight. The total area safeguarded for the development of cargo infrastructure at the CPK airport is sufficient to secure the handling of forecasts until at least 2060.
Arthur D. Little Independent verification of the forecast
The IATA 2023 Strategic Forecast Scenario was positively validated by the Vendor Due Diligence (VDD) analysis performed by the independent firm, Arthur D. Little, for the process of securing a strategic investor for the CPK Airport.
The analysis verified the forecasting methodology, macroeconomic assumptions, local and transfer traffic forecasts, the impact of environmental regulations, the impact of airport charges, the impact of the war in Ukraine, peak hour traffic forecasts and LOT Polish Airlines‘ strategic assumptions.
The forecast of transfer traffic was verified by Arthur D. Little in three ways:
As a whole, the IATA 2023 forecast has been assessed by Arthur D. Little as based on best market practices in air traffic forecasting and appropriate for use for investor needs.
IATA representatives are expected to respond to specific questions about the 2023 Strategic Scenario for CPK at a press conference in mid-January. Already today, we encourage you to direct any questions to: [email protected]
The approved Concept for the Provision of Passenger Rolling Stock in Connection with the Implementation of the CPK Programme provides for the establishment by CPK of a subsidiary company whose main task will be the purchase and management of the rolling stock required to serve the future High Speed Rail (HSR) lines.
According to the adopted resolution, the new rolling stock will be compliant with the technical specifications for interoperability (TSI) and will meet a number of technical and quality requirements ensuring the safety and comfort of travellers:
- max. speed up to 250 km/h,
- power supply of 3 kV DC and 25 kV AC,
- meeting the requirements of people with disabilities,
- energy efficiency and energy recovery systems,
- compatibility of safety systems,
- European Train Control System (ETCS) meeting the latest interoperability requirements,
- passenger information system (SIP) integrating airport information and on-board digital signage technology,
- passenger conveniences such as multi-functional areas, individual lighting and USB chargers.
‘Even the best railway infrastructure cannot function without modern trains. Therefore, the purchase of rolling stock for the CPK lines should be conducted in a well-thought-out and comprehensive manner. We are convinced that Polish companies will be involved in the manufacture of the trains and that this purchase should also form a boost for our economy,’ says the Deputy Minister of Funds and Regional Policy, Marcin Horała, the government plenipotentiary for CPK.
The rolling stock project is part of CPK’s rail investments, which are aimed at building HSR lines, completing the rail network, reducing journey times and increasing the share of rail in passenger and freight transport.
According to the schedule, priority will be given to the purchase of rolling stock to be used in passenger transport on Poland’s first HSR line, Warsaw – CPK – Łódź, which will be launched with the commencement of commercial operations at CPK airport.
Rolling stock pool
On the basis of the resolution, the CPK company will be able to establish a rolling stock pool. This is a solution that works well in many Western European railway markets. Operators operating under this model use trains purchased from manufacturers in large numbers, which they then lease to railway operators on a tender basis under multi-year contracts. For example, in the United Kingdom in 2019 87% of the rolling stock used by operators belonged to three such companies.
Implementation of the railway component under the CPK programme will generate demand for modern rolling stock currently unavailable on the Polish market. CPK is the first project that takes a comprehensive approach to rail transport, creating opportunities for railway operators to save on capital expenditure and grow at the same time. We believe that, as with the approach to liberalising the rail market, it is worth taking advantage of international experience and know-how. The rolling stock pool concept is an attractive option allowing operators to lease modern rolling stock adapted to the CPK infrastructure
|According to the adopted resolution, the rolling stock company established by CPK will be able to attract minority investors – private or public. It will be financed to a significant extent through debt instruments, e.g. by banks, investment funds, insurance companies and pension funds
Estimated investment expenditures on new railway vehicles in the years 2024-2030 should reach PLN 8.7 billion (according to the prices from the first half of 2023), and a total of PLN 16-20 billion by 2035. The assumptions are that a large part of them will feed the Polish economy, e.g. the market of rolling stock manufacturers and system sub-suppliers.
According to the provisions of the rolling stock resolution, CPK plans to carry out further analyses on the functional characteristics of the rolling stock before establishing a rolling stock company. It will also carry out consultations with railway operators and other organisations, such as those representing people with disabilities, in order to take the maximum account of their needs.
“The CPK effect”
Since 2015, there has been an increase in the number of passengers travelling by rail in Poland (apart from the temporary collapse of the market caused by COVID-19). Since 2021, statistics from the Office of Rail Transport (UTK) have shown an increasing number of travellers. In 2022, the number reached 342 million, thus surpassing the best performance so far in 2019.
Predictions are that there will be a ‘CPK effect’, i.e. another dynamic increase in passengers, once Poland’s first HSR connections become operational. Analyses performed with the Passenger Transport Model (PMT), a CPK model for traffic forecasting, indicate that the new CPK lines will contribute to a doubling of the passengers travelling by long-distance trains in Poland by 2050.
This means high demand for rolling stock, which will further increase the need to replace some of the trainsets in service. Figures published by UTK show that in the next 10 years, around 90% of passenger coaches and 70% of electric multiple units will be over 40 years old, qualifying them for decommissioning.
JSK Architekci is Polish architectural studio whose portfolio includes the design of Terminal 2 of Gdańsk Airport, the terminal of Wrocław Airport and the western pier of Terminal 1 of Munich Airport, which is currently being extended. They have also prepared stadium projects: National and Legia (both in Warsaw) and City Stadium in Wroclaw. It is also responsible for designing numerous public facilities, as well as office and commercial buildings.
We selected an experienced partner, whose previous projects guarantee high quality work. I believe that the designer will propose a very interesting architectural designforthe tower, which will meet all the requirements agreed with the Polish Air Navigation Services Agency,
According to the CPK airport master plan, the air traffic control tower will have a controllers’ operations room at a height of approximately 90 metres above the apron. According to the design assumptions, the maximum height of the CPK tower should be 105 metres. This will be precisely determined after the visibility analyses have been carried out as part of the first design phase.
So far, the tallest such building in Poland is 46 metres, the tower at Katowice Airport in Pyrzowice, commissioned in 2019. Slightly less – at around 45 metres – is the tower at Krakow Airport
We are delighted that our design for the air traffic control tower will become an important element of CPK airport, the most important airport in Poland. I am convinced that we will create something that will become a unique and recognizable element of the airport while at the same time fitting its overall architectural concept
The company selected in the tender will prepare the design for the tower, as well as obtain the necessary approvals and building permits. The scope of the contract will also include other services related to the design, such as consultancy during the proceedings for the construction works. According to the schedule, the visualisation of the facility is expected during the first quarter of 2024. The contract is valued at: PLN 15.5 million net.
Nine companies and four design consortia participated in the tender for the tower designer, with which the CPK company signed a framework agreement for the design of airport support facilities (Support Infrastructure Engineering – SIE) at the end of last year. Under this contract, in addition to the air traffic control tower, the airport operations centre, the airport services offices and the buildings for the rescue and firefighting services, airport maintenance and management, etc. will be designed in the immediate vicinity of the terminal.
It will consist of 6 sessions, each one covering areas such as economic development, cooperation and synergy between local authorities and the investor, case study and many more. The conference will be attended by domestic and international professionals and experts in airline sector as well as local development. Every participant will leave the event equipped with the knowledge, shared ideas and extended network of relations in the field of airport regions development.
- date: November 23-24, 2023 (Thursday-Friday),
- place: Renaissance Warsaw Airport Hotel (Żwirki i Wigury 1H, 00-906 Warszawa),
- participation: free of charge, online registration obligatory.
The conference is organized by Centralny Port Komunikacyjny, Polish company responsible for building a new hub airport next to Warsaw. Other entities co-creating the event are:
- co-organizer: Airports Regions Council, the association of regional and local authorities with an airport situated within or near their territories,
- patronage: Institute of Urban and Regional Development/Instytut Rozwoju Miast i Regionów,
- patronage: V4+ Airports, the association uniting airports from V4+ countries [TBC].
During whole conference there will be available simultaneous Polish-English interpretation.
Day 1 (November 23rd)
- 12:00-12:10 – opening of the conference and the welcome remarks
- 12:10-12:20 – presentation of CPK airport concept design
- 12:20-12:30 – presentation of CPK regional development strategy
- 12:30-12:40 – presentation of ARC
- 14:30-15:30 – session 2: Urban development of the airport region [session of presentations]
- 15:30-15:45 – coffee break
- 15:45-16:45 – session 3: Social matters in big investments (especially airports)
- 16:45-17:00 – summary and closing of day 1
Day 2 (November 24th)
- 9:30-9:40 – welcome & opening of day 2
- 9:50-10:45 – session 4: Strategic approach
- 10:45-11:00 – coffee break
- 11:00-12:00 – session 5: Between investor and local communities
- 12:00-12:15 – coffee break
- 12:15-13:15 – session 6: Between public investor and private businesses
- 13:15-13:30 – summary and closing of the conference.
- 13:30-14:00 – lunch
- Minister Marcin Horała, secretary of state in the Ministry for Funds and Regional Development, government plenipotentiary for the Centralny Port Komunikacyjny,
- Mikołaj Wild, CEO of Centralny Port Komunikacyjny,
- Gheorghe Marian Cristescu, CEO of Polski Holding Hotelowy,
- Łukasz Gałczyński, Vice President of Industry Development Agency Jsc,
- Sergi Alegre, Airport Regions Council, director general,
- Samira Serka, Aéroports de Paris SA,
- Ulla Ruuskannen, Vantaa,
- Carles Ferreiro, Serveis d’Empresa i Innovació, Àmbit Transició Ecològica i Promoció de la Ciutat, Viladecans,
- Max Hirsh, Airport City Academy,
- Pieter van der Horst, Airport City Academy,
- Ignasi Ragàs, independent expert in transportation and economic development,
- Vladimír Vytiska, Prague Airport Region,
- dr Johanna Sonnenburg, Center for Metropolitan Studies, Technische Universität Berlin,
- Janusz Szewczuk, Association of Polish Cities,
- Grzegorz Benedykciński, Burmistrz Grodziska Mazowieckiego,
- Robert Żyśko, Lublin City Office,
- dr hab. inż. arch. Michał Stangel, Katedra Urbanistyki i Planowania Przestrzennego, Wydział Architektury Politechniki Śląskiej,
- Aleksandra Matuszewska, Polski Holding Hotelowy,
- dr Agata Kozłowska, Investment Partners/Instytut Sobieskiego,
- Hanna Milewska-Wilk, Instytut Rozwoju Miast i Regionów,
- Grzegorz Kmiecik, Ministry for Funds and Regional Development,
- Jędrzej Kolesiński, Foster+Partners,
- Przemysław Derwich, Centralny Port Komunikacyjny,
- Paweł Paszak, Centralny Port Komunikacyjny,
- Daniel Piotrowski, Centralny Port Komunikacyjny,
- Sławomir Pelczar, Centralny Port Komunikacyjny,
- Michał Kmiecik, Centralny Port Komunikacyjny,
- Jan Zujewicz, Centralny Port Komunikacyjny.
Registration for this event was closed on 20.11.2023
The signed agreement will enable the financing of the full project documentation (including the construction project) and the documents needed to obtain water permits and a location decision for the 140-kilometre High Speed Rail (HSR) section: Warsaw – CPK – Łódź.
The value of the project was estimated at almost €75 million (PLN 350 million), of which up to 85% is to be financed by the EU. The Warsaw – Lodz – Poznan/Wroclaw railway line is part of the so-called “Y” railway line, which is part of the EU’s TEN-T North Sea – Baltic Sea European Transport Corridor.
EU funding for the design of the line between Warsaw and Lodz is very good news for rail passengers in Poland. The European Commission has once again recognised the strategic importance of CPK’s rail projects. The planned HSR line will enable the integration of the CPK airport into the high-speed rail network, and is therefore a priority investment for us
CPK is pursuing European transport objectives while the EU is supporting the construction of the CPK transport infrastructure. The new line between Warsaw and Lodz is a key section of the new transport system we are implementing. Firstly, it will provide comfortable access to the CPK airport. Secondly, as part of the ‘Y’ line, it will connect Warsaw, Lodz, Wroclaw and Poznan, as well as numerous important urban centres along the way. It is satisfying that our projects can count on the stable support of the European Commission
‘Funding for CPK was granted through the European Climate, Infrastructure and Environment Executive Agency (CINEA) under the second call for Connecting Europe Facility 2 (CEF 2). This is the first agreement between CINEA and CPK for support under the 2021-2027 financial perspective,’ says Jarosław Orliński, Director of the Department of Infrastructure Programmes at MFiPR.
Funding of over PLN 300 million for the development of the project for the construction of the High-Speed Railway line is another step towards the development of the TEN-T North Sea-Baltic Sea corridor and the construction of a consistent and sustainable transport network in Poland. I am glad that the support of beneficiaries by CUPT translates into investments on such a large scale
The Warsaw – CPK – Lodz line is currently undergoing advanced design work. The documentation for the Warsaw – CPK section has been under preparation since November of last year by a consortium of Metroprojekt and Sud Architekt Polska. The design of the next section of the line from the CPK airport to Lodz has been entrusted by CPK to a consortium of Egis Poland, Egis Rail and Jaf-Geotechnika. According to the schedule, the design should be completed by the end of the first quarter of next year.
Thanks to this investment, the travel time by rail between Warsaw and Lodz will be reduced to about 45 minutes from today’s 90 minutes. Passengers will be able to reach the CPK airport from Warsaw in about 15 minutes and from Lodz in about 30 minutes.
The section subsidized by the EU is part of line no. 85, CPK’s ‘spoke’ no. 9, which will connect Warsaw and Lodz with Wroclaw and Poznan. In the first stage, trains running along this route will be able to reach speeds of up to 250 km/h (the operating speed), and ultimately up to 350 km/h (the design speed).
This is not the first grant from Brussels for the CPK railway project. In 2021, CPK secured around PLN 110 million under the same EU CEF instrument for the construction project for the CPK long-distance tunnel in Łódź and for the feasibility studies related to the section: Warsaw – Łódź – Sieradz – Poznań.
The CPK is an investment which I absolutely consider to be one of the most important that Poland is carrying out in the 21st century. We have to move forward continuously, and our direction is the Centralny Port Komunikacyjny. The Second Polish Republic had its Gdynia, a port, a city and a shipyard, built on sand from a tiny fishing village. Now, we have a plan and the de facto launched CPK investment, construction of one of the largest airports and transport systems not only in Europe, but in the world. Do we need it? Yes! This investment is a clear and explicit pursuit of our interests
So far, over 1,000 hectares of land have been purchased CPK under the Voluntary Acquisition Programme (PDN). The procedure for the selection of a financial partner for the airport part has also now entered a decisive phase.
CPK is not just a Polish project – it’s a key initiative for the whole of Europe. Its implementation is a cornerstone in the transformation of European transport, raising mobility standards on the continent. What we have achieved so far shows that our commitment to the successful implementation of this investment is second to none. Thanks to CPK, the future of European transport looks brighter than ever before
Concept design and key consents ready
CPK’s Master Architect, the British consortium Foster+Partners, which has designed airports in locations like Hong Kong, Beijing and Doha, has already prepared a concept design for CPK’s terminal and main railway station. At the same time, work is well advanced on the construction project itself.
The Airport Master Plan, prepared by experts from Arup and CPK has been prepared, as has the environmental decision with immediate enforceability, issued in July by the Regional Director for Environmental Protection (RDOŚ). The General Plan has also been approved by the Minister of Infrastructure, as well as issuing of the Civil Aviation Authority’s (ULC) Air Promise, necessary for the construction of the airport. In the autumn, CPK will apply to the Mazovian Voivode for a location decision. The speed of the procedures depends on the Voivode, but the company’s schedules assume that it is still possible to obtain it this year. The next step will be an application for a building permit.
The commissioning of the first phase of the CPK airport, i.e. two runways and the infrastructure with a capacity of up to 40 million passengers, is planned for 2028.
We are fully aware that this is not an easy and ambitious schedule. From the period between the decision to build to the planned launch, we intend to do it 2.5 times faster than building the Berlin-Brandenburg port. Our project is passenger-focused, tailor-made, forecast-based and flexible, i.e. it involves phasing the construction according to the current market needs
The design of new railway lines to better integrate Europe has begun.
The CPK company is preparing the construction of approximately 2,000 km of new railway lines, including HSR lines, of which the feasibility studies are either ready or in progress for more than 1,500 km. For more than 600 km, route variants have been consulted and the preferred ones, i.e. investor variants, have been selected. Of this group, design is already underway for more than 450 km, including the priority section Warsaw – CPK – Łódź.
According to the schedule, with the opening of the first stage of CPK, key railway investments will already be completed, such as the 140-kilometre-long HSR line between Warsaw and Łódź, which is currently at an advanced design stage, as well as the long-distance tunnel in Łódź, the construction of which will start this year. According to the schedule, priority will be given to those sections that have been included by the EU in the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) and which Brussels is already subsidizing, e.g. Warsaw – CPK – Łódź – Wrocław/Poznań.
The new HSR ”Y” line Warsaw – CPK – Łódź – Wrocław/Poznań and the new HSR connection between Katowice and Ostrava will not only form the future core and the extended core TEN-T network but also become integral parts of 3 European Transport Corridors: ”North Sea-Baltic”, ”Baltic-Adriatic” and ”Baltic-Black Sea – Aegean Sea”. The CPK project could be the key to solving major mobility problems, which are currently severely hampered within the TEN-T due to missing or incompatible infrastructure. Together with other regional HSR projects like Rail Baltica and V4 HSR, CPK plans to form the future backbone of the EU transport system, bringing a vital contribution to fulfilling the TEN-T policy. Furthermore, CPK’s rail investment fits with the EU’s transport objectives, climate policy and the drive to increase the share of rail in passenger and freight transport. To date, the European Commission has granted CPK more than PLN 400 million from the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF).
Developing the CPK Group to streamline the investment process
Last week the Government Plenipotentiary for CPK contributed the shares of the Polish Airports (PPL) company to the Centralny Port Komunikacyjny. As a result, PPL joined CPK, bringing together the main assets and investment processes for airport infrastructure in Poland, making the new CPK Capital Group dominant in our European region. The transformation process at PPL has already been completed. The CPK Group will be responsible for coordinating and obtaining financing for investment tasks related to the construction of the new transfer hub.
The selection of a strategic partner, i.e. a shareholder in the company that will be responsible for the construction and management of the CPK airport, is in its final stage. The condition is that the State Treasury retains ownership control, i.e. at least 51% of the shares. Two candidates have so far revealed their involvement in the proceedings: the French-American Vinci Group, one of the largest airport operators in the world, and South Korea’s Incheon Airport from Seoul, which is among the world’s top hubs, according to a ranking by Skytrax. The interest expressed by such experienced players proves that the CPK project is business-consistent and that the airport part of the project is viable and guarantees a high rate of return.
CPK is intended to be a multi-modal transport and interchange hub that will integrate the air, rail and road transport in the region. As part of the project, a new airport and a major rail hub is being built in the centre of Poland, connecting CPK with the rest of the country and other European countries via newly constructed high-speed railway lines. CPK is a strategic infrastructure investment which, over the next five years, will give 180 million European citizens access to one of the most modern integrated transport systems, increasing the inflow of foreign investment and economic development, and significantly raising the level of security in the region by increasing the resilience and defence capabilities of European countries.
The strategy was presented at the event in Brussels titled “Sustainable Journey: Navigating the Future of Aviation”. While the European Union’s Sustainable & Smart Mobility Strategy calls for an ambitious shift, towards a potential 90% reduction in emissions in the transport sector by 2050, CPK’s approach takes its turn to aligning itself not just with regional but also global objectives.
Although flights only account for 2% of global climate-related emissions, the impact is indisputable. With our strategy, CPK recognises its global responsibility by being a responsible partner in shaping sustainable aviation in Europe and beyond. Our vision for this strategy is not just about meeting the standards; it is about incorporating all gradually available technologies that will create a new era in European transport. As the largest transport project in Central and Eastern Europe, CPK brings together a unique combination of air and rail transport, moving towards a significant reduction in emissions from the transport industry
Air transport, while crucial to global connectivity, comes with its own challenges, being one of the key sectors with high carbon emissions. Technological constraints and existing infrastructure have often limited direct carbon reductions. The CPK strategy addresses these challenges.
From the first day of operation, CPK will have ‘Net Zero Ready Airport’ status. This means technical readiness to be powered exclusively from on-site and off-site renewable energy sources for heating, cooling and power supply. Out of concern for the environment, the CPK airport has been located at a safe distance from protected nature zones, minimising the impact on the local ecosystems. As a result, more than 280,000 residents of Warsaw, for whom the existing inner-city Chopin Airport has been a nuisance for decades, will breathe a sigh of relief.
Our efforts are guided by the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the EU’s strategies in this area. By combining the strengths of rail and air transport, we aim for multimodal and safe mobility that seeks to improve the quality of life and ensure the health and safety of Europeans. Cooperation with partners such as PLL LOT and dialogue with representatives of the European Commission, IATA, and industry experts, confirms our shared commitment to this progress
At the core of the CPK strategy is a sustained commitment to environmental and social goals. The planned infrastructure for the new airport has been designed to reduce noise and pollution, ensuring minimal disruption to surrounding habitats. Furthermore, its integration with high-speed rail networks aims to reduce emissions from road transport, creating a seamless, environmentally friendly transition between various modes of transport.
Committed to responsible water and waste management, CPK maximises water reuse through rainwater harvesting and wastewater treatment. This approach is based on the principles of a circular economy, built on reuse, recycling and waste recovery.
Future-proof airport infrastructure will also be ready to accommodate next-generation zero-emission planes. Accordingly, space reserve has already been made at the design stage for, among other things, future hydrogen infrastructure. The entire CPK facility has been designed to withstand extreme weather conditions, taking into account varying climatic conditions.
The CPK airport sustainability strategy is not just about the plans. The CPK project is being implemented with respect for the environment and people from the very beginning, as demonstrated by the very choice of its location. And this one is characterised by minimal environmental impact, as confirmed by the recently obtained positive environmental decision issued by the Regional Director for Environmental Protection in Warsaw. The basis for applying for the decision was the Environmental Report for CPK, consisting of about 20,000 pages with appendices. The report is a result of many months of environmental research by the team, i.e. botanists, ichthyologists, ornithologists, herpetologists, chiropterologists, acousticians, land surveyors and geologists. The environmental decision has over 350 pages.
As Europe sets course for a transport revolution, CPK becomes a prime example of the EU’s vision in action. The EU’s Strategy for Sustainable and Smart Mobility emphasises the need for deep transformation, not just gradual change. Guided by this principle, the CPK project plans to reshape the landscape of European aviation.
Centralny Port Komunikacyjny is a company preparing to build a new airport, for which it already has, among other things, a concept design, an environmental decision, a General Plan, aviation arrangements and over 1,000 hectares of real estate purchased. CPK is also a railway investor preparing the construction of approximately 2,000 km of new railway lines including HSR lines, of which design is already at an advanced stage for approximately 500 km.
Polish Airports (“Polskie Porty Lotnicze” in Polish) owns and manages, among others, Chopin Airport in Warsaw, and airports in Radom and Zielona Góra. They also hold shares in most regional airports in Poland, including Kraków, Katowice, Gdańsk, Poznań, Wrocław and Rzeszów.
The integration of PPL into CPK will bring a number of positive results. Firstly, this will create a strong capital group that manages the most important state-owned airport assets. Secondly, the consolidation will make the CPK Capital Group dominant in our European region. Thirdly, this move will improve the construction of CPK’s infrastructure, which will ensure the continuation of Chopin Airport’s functions in a new location, to a better standard and guarantee an increase in the number of jobs
The consolidation of PPL and CPK has led to the concentration of competencies and responsibilities for the planning and management of the country’s airport infrastructure in one capital group. Similar airport management solutions operate i.e., in Sweden (Svedavia Group) and France (Aéroports de Paris – ADP).
The takeover of PPL ensures a coherent development of the Polish aviation sector. It enables us to better integrate investment activities and the objectives of the CPK programme, to prepare for the transfer of civil traffic and to test the technologies that will subsequently be used at the new airport
PPL’s entry into the CPK capital group’s structures is the fulfilment of the provisions of the Act on streamlining the CPK investment process and completes a process that began in October last year. In April this year, PPL was transformed into a commercial law company (thus PPL moved away from the archaic formula of a state-owned enterprise).
The integration with CPK has created a group that can take full advantage of Poland’s geographical location and the potential of the growing aviation market in this part of Europe. Today, Chopin Airport employs top-class professionals with unique knowledge in specialised service areas, which can also be used for the benefit of the emerging airport infrastructure
The contribution of PPL’s shares worth PLN 6.4 billion and last week’s issue by the Ministry of Finance of bonds for CPK worth PLN 3.6 billion increased its share capital to nearly PLN 11.5 billion. All the newly created shares were taken up by the State Treasury. The funds from the bond issue will be used to continue the preparation, design, and construction of CPK.
A link to the summary of the CPK Airport Master Plan can be found here.
In June 2023, the General Plan was approved, which is a document required by the Aviation Law to obtain approvals and acceptance at government levels for the construction of a new airport. The now published document is a summary of the full Airport Master Plan, which provides guidelines for planners and developers concerning the airport and the rail and road node: from the vision and strategic objectives through the variants analysed during the planning work, the location details, the sustainability concept, airport layout and phasing for all key areas including airside, passenger terminal, railway station, landside area, cargo area, MRO area, and other infrastructure.
Only one of Poland’s 15 public airports – Katowice Airport has published its current master plan online. For comparison: in the UK, 30 airports provide such documents, and their development is preceded by detailed environmental studies and extensive public consultations, as in the case of CPK.
The publication of the CPK Airport Master Plan shows that the assumptions and plans for the construction of this much needed investment are transparent and publicly available. It is also the next step in the continuously moving investment process. We have moved from the planning stage to the advanced design. Property acquisitions are progressing quickly on the project site as well as demolitions and geological boreholes
This document is a summary of months of work on the long-term development concept for the airport and the multimodal CPK hub. The Master Plan presents considered variants and the stages of airport development. We intend to provide passengers with opportunities for comfortable travel by combining different modes of transport in one place. A key element of the designed infrastructure is the first railway station integrated in such a way with the airport
The document outlines the stages of CPK airport development: from its launch, which is planned for 2028, through the subsequent stages until 2060 – the end date of the aviation forecast for the Polish market created by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
The Master Plan is in line with IATA’s forecasts, which were created assuming three scenarios – low, baseline and high – taking into account the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the baseline scenario, the level of 40 million passengers should be reached around 2035, which would imply the need for infrastructure expansion. In 2060, it is anticipated that nearly 65 million passengers per year are going to be using CPK. Transfer traffic is forecast to account for around 40% in the initial period of the airport’s operation and to increase to between 45 and 50% in the long term.
The document indicates that through flexible design it should be possible to expand the terminal, aprons and other infrastructure in a modular way to ensure the efficient operation of the entire hub. On opening, the CPK airport is going to have two parallel runways, each 3,800 metres long, separated by a 2,500 metre midfield in which the necessary infrastructure should be located, including a passenger terminal with a multimodal hub and a railway station, aprons and de-icing pads, as well as an air traffic control tower. A reserve for future expansion of the third runway, which may be needed in the next stage of the airport’s development, is located to the south of the two currently designed runways.
In the view of the growing demands for sustainability and green buildings, the Master Plan assumes that the airport should be ready for net zero CO2 emissions right from the launch, by providing ground handling infrastructure consisting of zero-emission vehicles and sourcing energy from renewable sources.
A railway station with six underground platforms serving long-distance, regional and commuter connections is going to be integrated with the terminal. Thanks to the new High Speed Railway lines built by the company and the modernisation of the existing railway network, travel times between the CPK airport and Warsaw and the largest cities in Poland should not exceed 2.5 hours.
The designed railway line, which is planned to be put into service with the opening of the airport, will connect Warsaw and Łódź with CPK, plugging the airport into the High Speed Railway system. The CPK railway station is the centre of a railway node connecting CPK with lines towards Warsaw, Łódź and Wrocław, Poznań, Kraków and Katowice, Tricity and Rzeszów.
The results of the Passenger Transport Model (PMT) forecasts indicate that ultimately around 40% of passengers are going to commute to the airport by rail, with around 50% using cars and taxis while the remainder use buses and other modes of transport. In the longer term, there are also plans to extend the Warsaw Commuter Rail (WKD) line from Grodzisk Mazowiecki to the CPK passenger terminal.
Two additional railway stops will be built within the airport, operated by regional trains. The CPK East stop is to provide access to the Airport City (i.e. hotel, office, conference and administrative facilities). The CPK West stop, on the other hand, is planned to serve a cargo zone (the CPK Freight station for handling freight is going to be built in the western part of the interchange). The cargo terminals for airfreight are to be located on the western side of the airport. Based on IATA forecasts, the Master Plan assumes that the new CPK infrastructure, combined with the lack of such restrictions as those at Chopin Airport, should unlock the Polish air cargo potential. According to forecasts, cargo and airmail transport combined is expected to reach around 1 million tonnes as early as 2035 (before COVID-19 it was around 100,000 tonnes).
The Master Plan also takes into account the preliminary road layout around the airport, which is undergoing in-depth analyses and agreements with the General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways (GDDKiA): connecting the airport to the extended A2 Motorway, National Road no. 50 (DK50) and the planned Warsaw Agglomeration Bypass (OAW).